BIO 101 | Study Mode

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Question 91
A
thylakoids 
B
lamellae 
C
cristae 
D
grana. 
Explanation.
The inner membrane of the mitochondria is infolded variously to form involutions called cristae. The cristae extend inward to varying degrees and may fuse with those from the opposite side, dividing the mitochondrion into compartments. The cristae are arranged in characteristic ways in different cells. <br /> They may be simple or branched, straight or zigzag, lamellar or tubular. The cristae have in them a narrow intracristal space. It is continuous with the intermembrane space. They greatly increase the inner surface area of the mitochondria to hold a variety of enzymes.

Correct Option:
C
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Question 92
A
nucleolus 
B
mitochondrion 
C
centriole 
D
golgi apparatus. 
Explanation.
Golgi apparatus is a stack of parallel, flattened, intercommunicating sacs or cisternae and many peripheral tubules and vesicles. The cisternae vary in number from 3 to 7 in most animal cells and from 10 to 20 in plant cells. <br /> They are usually equally spaced in the pile, separated from each other by thin layers of intercisternal cytoplasm. The latter may contain a layer of parallel fibres, called intercisternal elements that support the cisternae. The cisternae are free of ribosomes and have swollen ends. They look like the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

Correct Option:
D
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Question 93
A
replication of DNA 
B
chromosome segregation 
C
poleward movement of chromosomes 
D
cytoplasmic cleavage. 
Explanation.
Centromere is a part of a chromosome that attaches to the spindle during cell division. The position of the centromere is a distinguishing feature of individual chromosomes: a chromosome with the centromere at its centre is described as metacentric; one with the centromere towards one end is acrocentric; and a chromosome with the centromere at either end is telocentric. The centromere usually appears as a constriction when chromosomes contract during cell division. <br /> During anaphase, the centromere of each chromosome divides into two, so that each chromatid comes to have its own centromere. The two chromatids now start repelling each other and separate completely to become daughter chromosomes. The daughter chromosomes move towards the poles of spindle along the path of their chromosome fibres. In anaphasic movement of chromosomes, the centromeres lead the path while the limbs trail behind.

Correct Option:
C
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Question 94
A
protein synthesis 
B
phosphorylation of flavoproteins 
C
breakdown of inacromolecules 
D
oxidation-reduction reaction. 
Explanation.
Respiratory chain is located in the inner membrane (cristae) of mitochondria. It consists of a series of proteins containing oxidation-reduction groups. Chemical treatment of the mitochondrial membrane results in the isolation of five complexes which have been designated as complexes I, II, III, IV and V.

Correct Option:
D
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Question 95
A
cell division 
B
cell adherence 
C
cytolysis 
D
cellular excretion. 
Explanation.
In desmosomes circular patches of cell membranes are held together by interaction of proteins that extend through each membrane into the space between cells. The cell membrane has on the inner side a dense plate of protein for mechanical support and bears fine filaments, the tonofibrils, radiating into the cell. The desmosomes act as spot welds and keep the cells firmly together.

Correct Option:
B
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Question 96
A
helically arranged protein molecule 
B
9 + 2 membrane enclosed structure 
C
unit membrane enclosed fibre 
D
protein membrane enclosed fibre. 
Explanation.
Prokaryotic flagellum is not surrounded by any membrane. It consists of a single fhread. The thread is made of numerous identical spherical protein sub-units called, flagellin. Each subunit is about 40 A in diameters. The flagellin sub-units are arranged in helical spirals and form a hollow cylinder. Each flagellum is about 120-150 A thick.

Correct Option:
A
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Question 97
A
stops the functioning of centriole 
B
prevents attaching of centromeres with rays 
C
prevents the spindle formation in mitosis 
D
prevents the formation of equatorial plane. 
Explanation.
Colchicine is an alkaloid derived from the autumn crocus, Colchicum autumnale. It inhibits spindle formation in cells during mitosis so that chromosomes cannot separate during anaphase, thus inducing multiple sets of chromosomes. Colchicine is used in genetics, cytology, and plant breeding research and also in cancer therapy to inhibit cell division.

Correct Option:
C
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Question 98
A
in the cytoplasm as well as endoplasmic reticulum 
B
only on ribose attached to nucleon 
C
only in the cytoplasm 
D
in the nucleolus as well as in the cytoplasm. 
Explanation.
Protein synthesis in an animal cell, takes place in the nucleolus as well as in the cytoplasm. Main part of protein synthesis (transcription and translation) occurs in nucleolus. Chain elongation occurs in cytoplasm.

Correct Option:
D
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Question 99
A
ribosomes 
B
polysomes 
C
plastids 
D
lysosomes. 
Explanation.
A lysosome is a tiny sac bounded by a single unit membrane of lipoprotein. It contains a dense, finely granular fluid. The latter consists of glycoprotein hydrolytic (digestive) enzymes called acid hydrolases. These include proteases, lipases, nucleases, glycosidases, sulphatases, acid phosphatases, etc. <br /> However, all the enzymes do not occur in the same lysosome. There are different sets of enzymes in different lysosomes. The lysosome enzymes can break down all major biological macromolecules present in the cells or entering the cells from outside into their building block subunits by addition of water. The lysosome enzymes are active in acid medium, at about pH 5, hence their name.

Correct Option:
D
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Question 100
A
nucleic acids 
B
hydrolytic enzymes 
C
carbohydrates 
D
hormones. 
Explanation.
A lysosome is a tiny sac bounded by a single unit membrane of lipoprotein. It contains a dense, finely granular fluid. The latter consists of glycoprotein hydrolytic (digestive) enzymes called acid hydrolases. These include proteases, lipases, nucleases, glycosidases, sulphatases, acid phosphatases, etc. <br /> However, all the enzymes do not occur in the same lysosome. There are different sets of enzymes in different lysosomes. The lysosome enzymes can break down all major biological macromolecules present in the cells or entering the cells from outside into their building block subunits by addition of water. The lysosome enzymes are active in acid medium, at about pH 5, hence their name.

Correct Option:
B

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