BIO 101 | Study Mode

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Question 131
A
Riccia
B
Funaria
C
Anthoceros
D
Spirogya.
Explanation
Protonema occurs in the life cycle of Funaria. The spore is the first cell of gametophytic generation and it germinates to form a filamentous branched alga like structure called protonema. If gives rise to new plant.

Correct option: B
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Question 132
A
zygospore
B
zoospore
C
oospore
D
carpospore.
Explanation
The product of conjugation in Spirogyra or fertilization of Chlamydomonas is zygospore. Both are the members of green algae where gametes are fused to form zygote which develops into a thick walled zygospore.

Correct option: A
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Question 133
A
upper layer is non-polar and hydrophilic
B
upper layer is polar and hydrophobic
C
phospholipids form a bimolecular layer in middle part
D
proteins form a middle layer.
Explanation
In early 1972, S. Jonathan Singer and Garth Nicolson proposed fluid mosaic model for the membrane structure. As per the model, the cell membrane consists of a highly viscous, fluid matrix of 2 layers of phopholipid molecules, having globular proteins associated with them. <br /> The lipids and proteins vary from one type of membrane to another. The cell membrane also has oligosaccharides on the exposed surface. A good amount of cholesterol is also present in the cell membrane of animal cells. <br /> The phospholipids molecules are amphipathic, i.e., have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. They have their polar, hydrophilic heads directed outward and nonpolar, hydrophobic tails pointing inward.

Correct option: C
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Question 134
A
proteins in cell membranes can travel within the lipid bilayer.
B
proteins can also undergo flip-flop movements in the lipid bilayer.
C
proteins can remain confined within certain domains of the membrane.
D
many proteins remain completely embedded within the lipid bilayer.
Explanation
There are many different proteins embedded in the membrane. Except for flip flop movements rest occurs. Option (a) is simply demonstrated when carrier proteins bind with and transport specific molecules into or out of the cell and cell organelles. Option (c) type of proteins can be enzymes which are confined to certain domains and option (d) types are non-transmenbrane proteins.

Correct option: B
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Question 135
A
the electron microscope is more powerful than the light microscope as it uses a beam of electrons which has wavelength much longer than that of photons
B
the resolving power of the electron microscope is much higher than that of the light microscope
C
the resolving power of the electron microscope is 200 350 nm as compared to 0.1 0.2 nm for the light microscope
D
electron beam can pass through thick materials, whereas light microscopy requires thin sections
Explanation
Microscopes are used for studying cellular structures. They are used to magnify small objects. In electron microscopes, a high energy beam of electrons is focused through electromagnetic lenses. It can magnify very small details with high resolving power. The increased resolution results from the shorter wavelength of the electron beam.

Correct option: B
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Question 136
A
isogamous
B
anisogamous
C
oogamous
D
hologamous.
Explanation
In Chlamysomonas sexual reproduction takes place through isogamy, anisogamy, and oogamy, lsogamy is the fusion of similar gametes. Anisogamy is fusion of morphologically similar but physiologically different cells. Oogamy is fusion of different gametes.

Correct option: A
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Question 137
A
cilia contain an outer ring of nine doublet microtubules surrounding two singlet microtubules
B
the organized beating of cilia is controlled by fluxes of Ca2+ across the membrane
C
cilia are hair-like cellular appendages
D
microtubules of cilia are composed of tubulin
Explanation
Cilia are fine hair like vibratile, cytoplasmic processes borne by certain cell types. Their movement either propels the organism or moves the medium past a fixed cell. The cilia are enclosed by a unit membrane which is an extension of the plasma membrane of the cell. Within the membrane, is a fluid matrix having a supporting axial shaft, or axoneme. <br /> The axoneme is composed of eleven microtubules. Two microtubules are single and lie at the centre with a gap in between. They are called central singlets. The remaining nine microtubules are double and lie in a ring around the central microtubules. The two microtubules forming a doublet are named A and B subtubules. <br /> The microtubules single as well as double, are composed of the globular units of the protein tubulin. The arms of A microtubules contain a protein dynein. The latter is ATPase enzyme which catalyzes hydrolysis of ATP to ADP, and transfers the free energy released direct to ciliary work.

Correct option: B
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Question 138
A
the outer membrane resembles a sieve
B
the outer membrane is permeable to all kinds of molecules
C
the enzymes of the electron transfer chain are embedded in the outer membrane
D
the inner membrane is highly convoluted forming a series of infoldings
Explanation
The outer membrane of mitochondrion is smooth, freely permeable to most small molecules, contains fewer enzymes and is poor in proteins. It has porin proteins which form channels for the passage of molecules through it. It allows uptake of substrates and release of ATP. The inner membrane is semipermeable and regulates the passage of materials into and out of the mitochondrion. It is rich in enzymes and carrier proteins (permeases). It is usually produced into numerous infolds called cristae (singular crista). It bears minute regularly spaced lollipop-shaped particles known as oxysomes. The rest of the inner membrane contains the electron carrier molecules of the electron transport chain.

Correct option: C
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Question 139
A
Cycas
B
angiosperm
C
Selaginella
D
moos
Explanation
Moss has the largest gametophyte. Mosses are small, soft plants that are typically 1-10 cm tall, some species are much larger. They commonly grow close together in clumps or mats in damp or shady locations. They do not have flowers or seeds and their simple leaves cover the thin wiry stem.

Correct option: D
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Question 140
A
they require a layer of water for carrying out sexual reproduction
B
they occur in damp places
C
they are mostly aquatic
D
all the above.
Explanation
Bryophytes are called the amphibians because they require a layer of water for carrying out sexual reproduction. They grow in the moist places on land but they require water during the time of fertilization i.e. for completion of life cycle.

Correct option: A

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