BIO 101 | Study Mode

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Question 131
A
the outer membrane resembles a sieve 
B
the outer membrane is permeable to all kinds of molecules 
C
the enzymes of the electron transfer chain are embedded in the outer membrane 
D
the inner membrane is highly convoluted forming a series of infoldings 
Explanation.
The outer membrane of mitochondrion is smooth, freely permeable to most small molecules, contains fewer enzymes and is poor in proteins. It has porin proteins which form channels for the passage of molecules through it. It allows uptake of substrates and release of ATP. The inner membrane is semipermeable and regulates the passage of materials into and out of the mitochondrion. It is rich in enzymes and carrier proteins (permeases). It is usually produced into numerous infolds called cristae (singular crista). It bears minute regularly spaced lollipop-shaped particles known as oxysomes. The rest of the inner membrane contains the electron carrier molecules of the electron transport chain.

Correct Option:
C
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Question 132
A
both chloroplasts and mitochondria have an internal compartment, the thylakoid space bounded by the thylakoid membrane 
B
both chloroplasts and mitochondria contain DNA 
C
the chloroplasts are generally much larger than mitochondria 
D
both chloroplasts and mitochondria contain an inner and an outer membrane. 
Explanation.
Both chloroplasts and mitochondria contain DNA and are double membrane bound organelles having an inner membrane and outer membrane. Mitochondria occur in cytoplasm of both plants and animal cells. A mitochondria contains two chambers. The inner membrane forms mitochondrial cristae. Chloroplast is also a double membranous organelle but found only in plants. The membrane bound matrix of chloroplasts is stroma and inside the stroma thylakoids are present which form grana.

Correct Option:
A
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Question 133
A
glycolipids 
B
proline 
C
phospholipids 
D
cholesterol. 
Explanation.
Chemically a biomembrane consists of lipids (20-70%), proteins (20-70%), carbohydrates (1-5%) and water (20%). The important lipids of the membrane are phospholipids (some hundred types), sterols, (eg. cholesterol), glycolipids, sphingolipid (eg, sphingomyelin, cerebrosides). Protein can be fibrous or globular structural carrier, receptor or enzymatic. The lipid molecules are amphiatic or amphipathic, that is, they possess both polar hydrophilic (water loving) and non-polar hydrophobic (water repelling) ends. <br /> The hydrophilic region is in the form of head while hydrophobic part contains two tails of fatty acids. It results in formation of a lipid bilayer. Most common lipid of the bilayer is phospholipids. Protein molecules also possess both polar and non-polar side chains. Usually their poly hydrophilic linkages are towards the outer side. The non-polar or hydrophobic linkage are either kept folded inside or used to establish connections with hydrophobic parts of the lipids.

Correct Option:
B
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Question 134
A
Pteris archegonia repel Funaria sperms 
B
Funaria sperms get killed by Pteris sperms 
C
Funaria sperms are less mobile 
D
Pteris archegonia release chemical to attract its sperms. 
Explanation.
Sperms of both Funaria and Pteris were released together near the archegonia. But only the sperms of Pteris enter the archegonia, as Pteris archegonia releases a chemical malic acid to attract its sperms for fertilization.

Correct Option:
D
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Question 135
A
megaspore, endosperm and embryo 
B
megaspore, pollen grain and endosperm 
C
megaspore, integument and root 
D
pollen grain, leaf and root. 
Explanation.
In Pinus gymnosperms, endosperm is produced before fertilization and hence it is haploid. Megaspore and pollen grains are structures of male gametophytes and it is also haploid.

Correct Option:
B
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Question 136
A
lower part 
B
upper Part 
C
middle part 
D
fertile part. 
Explanation.
Apophysis is basal portion of capsule in continuation with seta. The outer layer of apophysis is epidermis which has stomata for gaseous exchange. In capsule of Funaria stomata are present only in apophysis.

Correct Option:
A
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Question 137
A
spore dispersal 
B
photosynthesis 
C
protection 
D
absorption. 
Explanation.
Moss peristome is present in capsule and takes part in spore dispersal. The hygroscopic action of peristomial teeth help in the removal of operculum. The lengthening and shortening of peristomial teeth help in the dispersal of spores. The inner peristome acts as a sieve allowing only a few spores to escape at a time.

Correct Option:
A
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Question 138
A
Riccia 
B
Funaria 
C
Anthoceros 
D
Spirogya. 
Explanation.
Protonema occurs in the life cycle of Funaria. The spore is the first cell of gametophytic generation and it germinates to form a filamentous branched alga like structure called protonema. If gives rise to new plant.

Correct Option:
B
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Question 139
A
zygospore 
B
zoospore 
C
oospore 
D
carpospore. 
Explanation.
The product of conjugation in Spirogyra or fertilization of Chlamydomonas is zygospore. Both are the members of green algae where gametes are fused to form zygote which develops into a thick walled zygospore.

Correct Option:
A
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Question 140
A
isogamous 
B
anisogamous 
C
oogamous 
D
hologamous. 
Explanation.
In Chlamysomonas sexual reproduction takes place through isogamy, anisogamy, and oogamy, lsogamy is the fusion of similar gametes. Anisogamy is fusion of morphologically similar but physiologically different cells. Oogamy is fusion of different gametes.

Correct Option:
A

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