BIO 101 | Study Mode

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Question 11
A
housefly
B
tsetse fly
C
sandfly
D
fruit fly.
Explanation

Trypanosoma gambiense was first observed by Forde in 1901. It causes African sleeping sickness. The disease, also called trypanosomiasis, is found in western and central parts of Africa. The parasite is transmitted by blood sucking tse-tse fly, Glossina palpalis. Mouth and contractile vacuole are absent. Food is absorbed through the body surface.

The parasite multiplies by fission. In human beings the parasite lives in the blood plasma. It causes trypanosoma fever. It is accompanied by glandular swelling. Later the parasite enters cerebrospinal fluid and damages the brain. It makes the patient lethargic and unconscious. Because of it, the disease is called sleeping sickness. If untreated, the disease leads to death.


Correct option: B
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Question 12
A
cryptomerozoties
B
metacryptomerozoites
C
merozoites
D
trophozoites.
Explanation

Symptoms of malaria first appear several days after the infection of the malaria parasite in man. This interval of time or the incubation period is utilized by the parasites to increase their progeny. To establish malarial symptoms, it is necessary that a large number of organisms must continue erythrocytic cycle at a time.

A healthy person acquires infection when a female Anopheles mosquito, containing infective stages of parasite (sporozoites) in its salivary glands, bites him for sucking his blood. Once within the numan blood, the sporozoites get into liverto invade the hepatic cells. Here they multiply asexually by schizogony.

Liver schizogony has two phases, pre-erythrocytic and exo-erythrocytic: Pre-crythrocytic phase: After penetrating a hepatic cell each sporozoite becomes a cryptozoite. It grows for a number of days and becomes a spherical and non- pigmented schizont.

It divides by schizogony (multiple fission) and forms a large number of uninucleate cells, the cryptomerozoites. During pre-erythrocytic schizogony, blood remains sterile and its inoculation does not produce infection.

Exo-erythrocvic phase: Cryptomerozoites enter fresh liver cells to become metacryptozoites. They undergo schizogony similar to the previous one producing enormous number of metacrypto-merozoites. Metacryptonierozoites, after escaping into blood stream, invade the erythrocytes or red blood corpuscles. This starts the erythrocytic schizogony. With erythrocytic schizogony, the symptom of malaria starts appearing.


Correct option: B
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Question 13
A
sarcodina
B
ciliata
C
sporozoa
D
dinophyceae.
Explanation
These protozoans are adapted to parasitic mode of life. All of them are endoparasites. Locomotory organelles (cilia, flagella. pseudopodia, etc.) are absent. Organelles connected with ingestion are absent. Nutrition is parasitic (absorptive). Sexual reproduction takes place through syngamy. <br />It is followed by spore formation, hence sporozoans. Life cycle consists of two distinct asexual and sexual phases. They may be passed in one (monogenetic) or two different hosts (digenetic).

Correct option: C
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Question 14
A
mononomial
B
vernacular
C
binomial
D
polynomial
Explanation
Binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming species. The essence of it is that each species name is in (modern scientific) Latin and has two parts, so that it is also sometimes popularly known as the Latin name of the species, although this terminology is frowned upon by biologists, who prefer the phrase scientific name.

Correct option: C
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Question 15
A
species
B
kingdom
C
family
D
variety.
Explanation
Basic unit or smallest taxon of taxonomy/ classification is species. Species is a group of individuals that remain relatively constant in their characteristics; can be distinguished from other species and do not normally interbreed.

Correct option: A
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Question 16
A
polymorphic
B
monogenetic
C
facultative parasite
D
non-pathogenic.
Explanation
Trypanosoma is polymorphic i.e. it has more than one form. It has at least four forms that are recognized on the basis of the positions of kinetoplast and blepharoplast and the course taken by the tlagellum. Two or more such forms occur either in one or both the hosts in the life cycles of various species of Trypanosoma. These i forms are <br />(i) Leishmanial (amastigote): Round or oval form with a nucleus, blepharoplast and kinetoplast. Flagellum reduced and fibril-like embedded in cytoplasm. <br />(ii) Leptomonad (promastigote): Body elongate, nucleus large and anteriorly located blepharoplast and kinetoplast. Flagellum short and unattached. <br />(iii) Crithidial (epimastigote): Body elongate. Blepharoplast and kinetoplast placed immediately anterior to nucleus. Undulating membrane inconspicuous. <br />(iv) Trypanosomid (trypomastigote): Body elongate and slender. Blepharoplast and kinetoplast situated at or near posterior end. Undulating membrane conspicuous. <br />Tiypanosoma is digenetic i.e. it completes its life cycle in two hosts. It is an obligate parasite and is pathogenic. <br /> Tiypanosoma is digenetic i.e. it completes its life cycle in two hosts. It is an obligate parasite and is pathogenic.

Correct option: A
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Question 17
A
a group of related families
B
a group of related species
C
a type of living organisms
D
a taxonomic group of any ranking.
Explanation
The word taxon signify a taxonomic group of any rank which represents the real biological organisms included in a category. The term taxon was coined by Adolf Meyer (1926) for animals and H.J Lam (1948) used this term in plant Science.

Correct option: D
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Question 18
A
Ronald Ross
B
Mendel
C
Laveran
D
Stephens.
Explanation
Laveran discovered that malaria is caused by protozoan parasite (Plasmodium) in 1880. He discovered Plasmodium and got Nobel Prize in 1907. <br />Sir Ronald Ross in 1897, a doctor in Indian Army, established that malaria parasite is transmitted by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito and in 1902; he got Nobel Prize for this discovery.

Correct option: C
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Question 19
A
Plasmodium falciparum
B
P. vivax
C
P. ovale
D
P. malariae.
Explanation
Plasmodium falciparum is the greatest killer of human beings over most parts of Africa and elsewhere in tropics. It causes malignant (or pernicious or cerebral or tropical) tertian malaria. <br />This malaria is most harmful. Plasmodium vivax causes benign tertian malaria. Plasmodium malariae causes quartan malaria. Plasmodium ovale is the rarest of the four species which infect man and it causes mild tertian malaria.

Correct option: A
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Question 20
A
Plasmodium vivax transmitted by Tsetse fly
B
Trypanosoma lewsii transmitted by Bed Bug
C
Trypanosoma gambiense transmitted by Glossina palpalis
D
Entamoeba gingivalis spread by Housefly.
Explanation
Trypanosoma gambiense is the parasitic zoo flagellate which causes one of the deadliest ailments in human beings called sleeping sickness or trypanosomiasis. The disease is common in humid and subhumid zones of the African continent. The disease is transmitted by shade loving tsetse fly (Glossinapalpalis) which acts as the vehicle that carries the culprit protozoan parasite.

Correct option: C

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