BIO 101 | Study Mode

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Question 31
A
only free nucleic acid aggregates 
B
membrane bound nucleo proteins lying embedded in the cytoplasm 
C
gene containing nucleoproteins condensed together in loose mass 
D
nucleoprotein in direct contact with the rest of the cell substance. 
Explanation.
Protists include all unicellular and colonial eukaryotes except those of green and red algae. They are broadly divided into three groups photosynthetic, slime moulds and protozoans. The protistan cells are typically eukaryotic having membrane bound organelles like mitochondria, chloroplasts, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus etc. Nucleus is well defined. Protists can be uninucleate, binucleate or multinucleate. The genetic material is linear DNA, enclosed by nuclear envelope, complexed with proteins and organised into distinct chromosomes.

Correct Option:
B
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Question 32
A
overall similarities 
B
utilitarian system 
C
habits of plants 
D
common evolutionary descent. 
Explanation.
Phylogenetic systems of classification bring out evolutionary relationships of organisms. Phylogeneti <br />systems of classification came into existence after acceptance of doctrine of evolution and natural selection propounded by Charles Darwin in his book On the origin of Species by means of Natural Selection. Darwin had put forward the view that the present day plants/animals originated from some ancestral ones after undergoing some periodical changes. <br />So the phylogenetic classification is based on the evolutionary descent of a group of organisms and the relationships are depicted through a phylogram and a cladogram.

Correct Option:
D
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Question 33
A
single stranded RNA 
B
double stranded DNA 
C
proteinaceous 
D
double stranded RNA. 
Explanation.
Tobacco Mosaic Virus is a ribovirus and contains single stranded RNA. It was proved by the experiments ofFrankel Conart that RNA is the genetic material in this virus. It does not contain any DNA and is composed of 6 % RNA surrounded by a hollow cylinder of portion subunits. <br />Double stranded RNA is found in Reovirus and Tumor virus. <br />Retroviruses have two copies of single stranded RNA.

Correct Option:
A
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Question 34
A
motile on surface of bacteria 
B
non-motile 
C
motile on surface of plant leaves 
D
actively motile in water. 
Explanation.
The tailed bacteriophages contain a hollow helical tail which serves both as cell attachment organ and as a tube that facilitates the entry of nucleic acid into the host cell. The tail consists of tail plate and the caudal fibres.

Correct Option:
A
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Question 35
A
bryophytes 
B
prokaryotes 
C
protista 
D
fungi. 
Explanation.
According to Whittakers system, blue green algae are placed in kingdom monera which is the kingdom of prokaryotes. This is because they lack nucleus, DNA is naked and is folded variously to form nucleoid in the centre of the protoplast. In addition they lack membrane bound organelles including endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes are of 70s type. So they are included under prokaryotes.

Correct Option:
B
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Question 36
A
order 
B
taxonomy 
C
species 
D
genes. 
Explanation.
Taxon refers to all the categories in the taxonomic hierarchy. It may be a kingdom, class, order, family, genus or species. It is any level of grouping of organisms. Each of these categories has been divided further into intermediate categories like subkingdom, subdivision, superclass, subgenus, subspecies etc. This term was coined by ICBN in 1956.

Correct Option:
B
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Question 37
A
double helical DNA 
B
RNA 
C
single helix DNA 
D
none of these. 
Explanation.
Influenza viruses are spherical in shape measuring about 800-1200A in diameter. It has a protein capsid that encloses a single stranded RNA. The single stranded RNA is generally linear and constitutes about 10% of the virus particle. RNA is genetic material in other viruses like poliomyelitis, foot and mouth disease virus and tobacco mosaic virus etc.

Correct Option:
B
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Question 38
A
Engler & Prantl 
B
Bentham & Hooker 
C
Bessey 
D
Hutchinson. 
Explanation.
Bentham and Hooker in their monumental work Genera Plantarum (1862-1883) have provided elaborate keys for the easy identification of202 natural orders and genera. Engler and Prantl wrote Die naturlichen pflanzen familien. Huchinson wrote a book titled The Families of Flowering Plants.

Correct Option:
B
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Question 39
A
natural system 
B
phylogenetic system 
C
artificial system 
D
synthetic system. 
Explanation.
There are three systems of classification artificial, natural and phylogenetic. In the natural system of classification the organisms are arranged on the basis of all known taxonomic characters instead of one or first few. These include morphological, anatomical, cytological, and physiological and biochemical characters of the organisms. <br />The artificial system is based on one or a few characters that are easily observable. The phylogenetic system tries to organize organisms on the basis of their genetic and phylogenetic relationships besides taxonomic characters.

Correct Option:
A
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Question 40
A
plantae 
B
protista 
C
monera 
D
fungi. 
Explanation.
R.H. Whittaker had proposed a five kingdom system of biological classification in 1969. It is based on complexity of cell structure, body organization and mode of nutrition. The kingdom monera includes all prokaryotes. They are basically unicellular with peptidoglycan in cell wall. Naked circular DNA coiled to form nucleoid without association with histones, ribosomes 70s, thylakoids present in photoautotrophs but other membrane bound organelles are absent. <br />These are heterotrophic, phototrophic or chemotrophic in their mode of nutrition. The blue-green algae, nitrogen fixing bacteria and methanogenic archaebacteria are all unicellular prokaryotes so they are included in the kingdom monera.

Correct Option:
C

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