BIO 102 | Study Mode

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Question 51
A
closely related organism growing in different niches
B
closely related organisms growing in the same area/niche
C
distantly related organisms growing in the same habitat
D
distantly related organisms growing in different niches. (1988)
Explanation
Competition is rivalry for obtaining the same resource. Competition of light, nutrients and space is most severe between closely related organisms growing in the same area/niche, due to overproduction of population in the same area/niche.

Correct option: B
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Question 52
A
mutualism/symbiosis
B
commensalism
C
amensalism
D
both A and B.
Explanation
Mutualism is an association between individuals of two species, both of which are benefitted but cannot live separately under natural conditions e.g. instances of mutualism exist between animals and plants and also in between plants e.g. lichens. Ammensalism is an interaction in which one species causes harm to another spices with its toxic secretion often without gaining any benefit from the interaction. Commensalism is the relationship between individuals of two species of which one is benefitted and the other is almost unaffected i.e.; neither benefitted nor harmed.

Correct option: A
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Question 53
A
free energy
B
carbon
C
nitrogen
D
potassium.
Explanation
The behaviour of energy in ecosystem can be termed energy flow due to unidirectional flow of energy, Flow of energy is only in one direction i.e., from solar radiation > producers > heribivorous > carnivores. This energy cannot pass in the reverse direction. There is decrease in the content and flow of energy with rise j in tropic level.

Correct option: A
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Question 54
A
overall similarities
B
utilitarian system
C
habits of plants
D
common evolutionary descent.
Explanation
Phylogenetic systems of classification bring out evolutionary relationships of organisms. Phylogenetic
systems of classification came into existence after acceptance of doctrine of evolution and natural selection propounded by Charles Darwin in his book On the origin of Species by means of Natural Selection. Darwin had put forward the view that the present day plants/animals originated from some ancestral ones after undergoing some periodical changes.

So the phylogenetic classification is based on the evolutionary descent of a group of organisms and the relationships are depicted through a phylogram and a cladogram.


Correct option: D
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Question 55
A
plantae
B
protista
C
monera
D
fungi.
Explanation
R.H. Whittaker had proposed a five kingdom system of biological classification in 1969. It is based on complexity of cell structure, body organization and mode of nutrition. The kingdom monera includes all prokaryotes. They are basically unicellular with peptidoglycan in cell wall. Naked circular DNA coiled to form nucleoid without association with histones, ribosomes 70s, thylakoids present in photoautotrophs but other membrane bound organelles are absent.

These are heterotrophic, phototrophic or chemotrophic in their mode of nutrition. The blue-green algae, nitrogen fixing bacteria and methanogenic archaebacteria are all unicellular prokaryotes so they are included in the kingdom monera.


Correct option: C
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Question 56
A
species
B
division
C
class
D
family.
Explanation
A taxonomic hierarchy is the sequence of arrangement of taxonomic categories in a descending order during the classification of an organism. There are seven obligate categories kingdom, division, class, order, family, genus and species. Species is the lowest category while kingdom is the highest category.

The number of common characters is maximum in case of organisms placed in the lowest category. Number of common characters decreases with the rise in category. Species are the smallest group of individuals which can be recognized by ordinary methods as groups and which arc consistently and persistently different from other groups because their characters are less general.


Correct option: A
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Question 57
A
structure of nucleus
B
mode of nutrition
C
structure of cell wall
D
asexual reproduction.
Explanation
Whittakers system is based on the following three criteria

complexity of cell structure.

complexity of the body organization.

mode of nutrition.

On the basis of these criteria, Whittaker divided organisms into five kingdoms. These five kingdoms are monera, protista, algae, fungi and animalia. In the five kingdom classification all, prokaryotes have been placed in kingdom monera, all unicellular eukaryotes in kingdom protista, fungi (except slime moulds and water moulds) in their separate kingdom while kingdom plantae and kingdom animalia have been retained for multicellular, autotrophic and multicellular holozoic organisms respectively.


Correct option: B
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Question 58
A
plantae
B
fungi
C
protista
D
monera
Explanation
The kingdom monera includes all prokaryotes. They are basically unicellular but can be mycelial, colonial and filamentous. They contain peptidogycan in cell wall. Naked circular DNA coiled to form nucleoid without association with histones, ribosomes 70s, thylakoids present in photoautotrophs but other membrane bound 1 organelles are absent. Nutrition is of various types parasitic, chemoautotrophic, photoautotrophic and saprobic.

Some monerans have the ability to fix nitrogen. Due to presence of these characters in arehaea and nitrogen- fixing organisms they are placed under monera.

All others fungi, plantae, protists and animalia are eukaryotic.


Correct option: D
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Question 59
A
the ancestral lineage of existing organisms
B
observable characteristics of existing organisms
C
dendrograms based on DNA characteristics
D
sexual characteristics
Explanation
Phenetic classification is a type of numerical taxonomy. In this type of classification the organisms are arranged according to overall similarity of existing organisms based on available characters.

It is also called adansonian taxonomy because the same was first attempted by Adanson (1763), of course on the basis of external traits only. Numerical taxonomy evolved around 1950.

It has received impetus with the availability of calculating machines and computers. In numerical taxonomy as many characters as possible are employed for evaluating degree of similarity and difference. All characteristics used in analysis are given equal weightage and importance.

A proper selection of characters, their organisation and analysis in the light of current knowledge is key to success of this method. A lot of subjectivity can creep in depending upon the judgement of the biosystematist. No weightage is given to the quantity of the character present.


Correct option: B
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Question 60
A
infra-red rays reaching earth
B
moisture layer in atmosphere
C
increase in temperature due to increase in carbon dioxide concentration of atmosphere
D
ozone layer of atmosphere.
Explanation
The mean global temperature rise by 2 6c and the concentration of carbon dioxide increases in the troposphere upto 600 ppm. Hence, the surface of the earth becomes warm which causes global warming. The phenomenon is similar to that of green house in which the glass enclosed atmosphere gets heated up due to its insulation from the rest of the environment. Hence, global warming is also known as green house effect and the gases responsible for it are called green house gases e.g CH4, CO2 etc.

Correct option: C

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