BIO 102 | Study Mode

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Question 61
A
conversion of sterile soil into fertile one
B
aeration of soil
C
erosion of soil
D
protection against loss.
Explanation
Soil conservation is to conserve fertile soil from the losses like heavy rainfall, drainage, high wind, flood, draught etc. Soil is the top cover of the earth in which plants can grow. The rotation of crops, contour ploughing and use of proper fertilizers help in maintaining the fertility of soil. Plantation of trees, controlled grazing of grasslands, reforestation, prevention of forests fires will protect the erosion of top soil. The regulation of water resources to prevent flood will help not only in soil conservation but also supply an adequate water supply in the period of drought.

Correct option: D
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Question 62
A
real basic units of classification
B
the lowest units of classification
C
artificial concept of human mind which cannot be defined in absolute terms
D
real units of classification devised by taxonomists
Explanation
Species is a natural population or group of natural populations of individuals which are genetically distinct and reproductively isolated with similar essential morphological traits. Species is also a genetically closed system because its members do not interbreed with members of other species. Species is lowest or basic taxonomic category, e.g., mango {Mangifera indica), potato (Solanum tuberosum), lion (Panthera Leo).

Here indica, tuberosum, Leo are species of genera Mangifera, Solatium and Pantera respectively. All other taxonomic categories are defined and described in relation to species. For example, a genus is a group of species and a subspecies or a variety is a part of species. New species originate from already existing species. Species is considered basic unit of taxonomy since in the greater majority of cases we do not have intraspecific names.


Correct option: A
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Question 63
A
observable characteristics of existing organisms
B
the ancestral lineage of existing organisms
C
dendogram based on DNA characteristics
D
sexual characteristics.
Explanation
Phenetic classification is a type of numerical taxonomy. In this type of classification the organisms are arranged according to overall similarity of existing organisms based on available characters.

It is also called adansonian taxonomy because the same was first attempted by Adanson (1763), of course on the basis of external traits only. Numerical taxonomy evolved around 1950.

It has received impetus with the availability of calculating machines and computers. In numerical taxonomy as many characters as possible are employed for evaluating degree of similarity and difference. All characteristics used in analysis are given equal weightage and importance.

A proper selection of characters, their organisation and analysis in the light of current knowledge is key to success of this method. A lot of subjectivity can creep in depending upon the judgement of the biosystematist. No weightage is given to the quantity of the character present.


Correct option: A
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Question 64
A
symbiosis
B
parasitism
C
commenalism
D
protocooperation.
Explanation
Algae and fungi in a lichen show symbiotic relationship. Fungi give support to the algae, give protection and help in absorption of water while algae provide food to fungi which is achlorophyllous. No one is harmed but both are benefitted by each other.

Correct option: A
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Question 65
A
sulphur dioxide
B
carbon monoxide
C
methane
D
fluorocarbon.
Explanation
Aerosols are chlorofluoro-hydrocarbon compounds released into air with force in the form of vapour. Main source of aerosols is the emission of jet planes, where fluorocarbons are used. These chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer in the higher atmosphere. These CFCs have produced a hole in the ozone layer.

Correct option: D
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Question 66
A
methyl isocyanate
B
potassium isothiocyanate
C
sodium isothiocyanate
D
ethyl isothiocyante.
Explanation
In Bhopal, the killer gas methyl isocyanate (MIC) was leaked into air from a chemical plant (Union Carbide) killing more than 2,000 people, many of the people are still suffering from various diseases and defects of eye.

Correct option: A
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Question 67
A
soil erosion
B
soil fertility
C
land slides
D
rainfall.
Explanation
Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forest land use such as arable land, pasture, urban use, logged area, or wasteland. Generally, the removal or destruction of significant areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity. Deforestation results from removal of trees without sufficient reforestation, and results in declines in habitat and biodiversity, wood for fuel and industrial use, and quality of life. Due to deforestation, transpiration will be decreased, air temperature will be increased and water content will be decreased hence rainfall decreases.

Correct option: D
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Question 68
A
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
B
International Congress of Biological Names
C
Indian Code of Botanical Nomenclature
D
Indian Congress of Biological Names.
Explanation
The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is a set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names given to plant. The foundations of ICBN are given in book written by C. Linnaeus named Philosophia Botanica. It is independent of zoological nomenclature, ilie rank of species is basic and relative orders of the ranks of taxa are as: species, genus, tribe, family, order, series, class, division and kingdom.

The different ranks or categories have following specific endings of their names as division phyla, class, and family-aceae.


Correct option: A
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Question 69
A
always inverted
B
always upright
C
both A and B
D
spindle-shaped.
Explanation
Pyramid of number in a grassland/tree ecosystem is always upright. It shows the number of individual organisms at each level. In grassland, the producers, which are mainly grasses, are always maximum in number. This number then shows a decrease towards apex, primary consumers are lesser in number than the grasses; the secondary consumers are lesser in number than the primary consumers. Finally, the top consumers are least in number. Thus, the pyramid becomes upright.

Correct option: B
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Question 70
A
nonbiodegradable pollution
B
biodegradable pollution
C
effluents
D
air pollution
Explanation
Domestic waste constitutes biodegradable pollution. These are also called non-conservative pollutants. These are decomposed chemically or by activity of microorganisms into harmless products and are recycled back into the atmosphere.

Correct option: A

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