Adaptation is process by which an animal or plant species becomes fitted to its environment; it is the result of natural selections acting upon heritable variation. Even the simpler organisms must be adapted in a great variety of ways: in their structure, physiology, and genetics, in their locomotion or dispersal, in their means of defense and attack, in their reproduction and development, and in other respects.
Evolution explains how living things change over a long time, and how they have come to be the way they are
Variation is any difference between cells, individual organisms, or groups of organisms of any species caused either by genetic differences (genotypic variation) or by the effect of environmental factors on the expression of the genetic potentials (phenotypic variation). Variation may be shown in physical appearance, metabolism, fertility, mode of reproduction, behaviour, learning and mental ability.
Succession is the process by which the structure of a biological community evolves over time. Two different types of successionprimary and secondaryhave been distinguished. Primary succession occurs in essentially lifeless areasregions in which the soil is incapable of sustaining life as a result of such factors as lava flows, newly formed sand dunes, or rocks left from a retreating glacier.
Secondary succession occurs in areas where a community that previously existed has been removed; it is typified by smaller-scale disturbances that do not eliminate all life and nutrients from the environment.