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1.
Static concept of species was put forward by
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A.
de Candolle
B.
Linnaeus
C.
Theophrastus
D.
Darwin.
Explanation. Give a better Explanation
Linnaeus, 1758 developed “Binomial system of nomenclature”, de Candolle gave the term taxonomy. Theophrastus, father of botany, gave names and descriptions of 480 plants in his book. ‘Histuria plantarum’ and Darwin proposed the theory of natural selection or origin of species.


2.
The term “New Systematics” was introduced by
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A.
Bentham and Hooker
B.
Linnaeus
C.
Julian Huxley
D.
A.P. de Candolle.
Explanation. Give a better Explanation
The term “New Systematics” was given by Julian Huxley (1940). This classification takes into account the cytological, morphological, genetical, anatomical, palynological and physiological characters.


3.
Classification given by Bentham and Hooker is
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A.
artificial
B.
natural J U.
C.
phylogenetic
D.
numerical.
Explanation. Give a better Explanation
Classification given by Bentham and Hooker is Natural System. Monocots were placed after dicots; closely related families were seperated; gymnosperms were placed between dicots and monocots.


4.
The causal organism for African sleeping sickness i is
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A.
Trypanosoma cruzi
B.
T. rhodesiense
C.
T. tangela
D.
T. gambiense.
Explanation. Give a better Explanation
Trypanosoma gambiense was first observed by Forde in 1901. It causes African sleeping sickness. The disease, also called trypanosomiasis, is found in western and central parts of Africa. The parasite is transmitted by blood sucking tse-tse fly, Glossina palpalis. Mouth and contractile vacuole are absent. Food is absorbed through the body surface. <br /> The parasite multiplies by fission. In human beings the parasite lives in the blood plasma. It causes trypanosoma fever. It is accompanied by glandular swelling. Later the parasite enters cerebrospinal fluid and damages the brain. It makes the patient lethargic and unconscious. Because of it, the disease is called sleeping sickness. If untreated, the disease leads to death.


5.
The vector for sleeping sickness is
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A.
housefly
B.
tsetse fly
C.
sandfly
D.
fruit fly.
Explanation. Give a better Explanation
Trypanosoma gambiense was first observed by Forde in 1901. It causes African sleeping sickness. The disease, also called trypanosomiasis, is found in western and central parts of Africa. The parasite is transmitted by blood sucking tse-tse fly, Glossina palpalis. Mouth and contractile vacuole are absent. Food is absorbed through the body surface. <br /> The parasite multiplies by fission. In human beings the parasite lives in the blood plasma. It causes trypanosoma fever. It is accompanied by glandular swelling. Later the parasite enters cerebrospinal fluid and damages the brain. It makes the patient lethargic and unconscious. Because of it, the disease is called sleeping sickness. If untreated, the disease leads to death.


6.
Trypanosoma belongs to class
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A.
sarcodina
B.
zoofiagellata
C.
ciliata
D.
sporozoa.
Explanation. Give a better Explanation
On the basis of locomotory organelles the protozoan protists are divided into four groups : Mastigophora, Sarcodina, Sporozoa and Ciliata. Trypanosoma belongs to class zooflagellata which comes under the group mastigophora. The characteristics are: <br /> (i) These zooflagellates are generally uninucleate, occasionally multinucleate. <br /> (ii) The body is covered by a firm pellicle. <br /> (iii) Nutrition is holozoic, parasitic and saprobic. <br /> (iv) Reserved food is glycogen.


7.
Malaria fever coincides with liberation of
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A.
cryptomerozoties
B.
metacryptomerozoites
C.
merozoites
D.
trophozoites.
Explanation. Give a better Explanation
Symptoms of malaria first appear several days after the infection of the malaria parasite in man. This interval of time or the incubation period is utilized by the parasites to increase their progeny. To establish malarial symptoms, it is necessary that a large number of organisms must continue erythrocytic cycle at a time. <br /> A healthy person acquires infection when a female Anopheles mosquito, containing infective stages of parasite (sporozoites) in its salivary glands, bites him for sucking his blood. Once within the numan blood, the sporozoites get into liverto invade the hepatic cells. Here they multiply asexually by schizogony. <br /> Liver schizogony has two phases, pre-erythrocytic and exo-erythrocytic: Pre-crythrocytic phase: After penetrating a hepatic cell each sporozoite becomes a cryptozoite. It grows for a number of days and becomes a spherical and non- pigmented schizont. <br /> It divides by schizogony (multiple fission) and forms a large number of uninucleate cells, the cryptomerozoites. During pre-erythrocytic schi7ogony, blood remains sterile and its inoculation does not produce infection. <br /> Exo-erythrocvic phase: Cryptomerozoites enter fresh liver cells to become metacryptozoites. They undergo schizogony similar to the previous one producing enormous number of metacrypto-merozoites. Metacryptonierozoites, after escaping into blood stream, invade the erythrocytes or red blood corpuscles. This starts the erythrocytic schizogony. With erythrocytic schizogony, the symptom of malaria starts appearing.


8.
A bite of Tse-tse fly may pass to humans
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A.
Leishmania donovani
B.
Trypanosoma gambiense
C.
Entamoeba histolytica
D.
Plasmodium vivax.
Explanation. Give a better Explanation
The main vertebrate host is human. The principle invertebrate’s hosts are tsetse fly of the genus Glossina. T. gambiense is transmitted to human by biting of an infected tsetse fly after the cyclic development of the parasite.


9.
Artificial system of classification was first used by
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A.
Linnaeus
B.
De Candolle
C.
Pliny the Edkr
D.
Bentham and Hooker
Explanation. Give a better Explanation
Artificial system of classification was first used by Linnaeus. The cryptogams were included in flowering plants. Linnaeus system is known as sexual system of classification. He classified on the basis of number, size and union of sex organs.


10.
System of classification used by Linnaeus was
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A.
natural system
B.
artificial system
C.
phylogenetic system
D.
asexual system
Explanation. Give a better Explanation
Linnaeus put forward an “Artificial system” of plant classification which was based on sexual characters like cryptogamia, monoecia, monandria, diandria, polyandria etc. It is commonly also called as sexual system of plant classification.


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