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Question 121 BIO 101 | LAUTECH 100L
A
proteins in cell membranes can travel within the lipid bilayer.  
B
proteins can also undergo flip-flop movements in the lipid bilayer.  
C
proteins can remain confined within certain domains of the membrane.  
D
many proteins remain completely embedded within the lipid bilayer.  
Explanation.
Share Answer There are many different proteins embedded in the membrane. Except for flip flop movements rest occurs. Option (a) is simply demonstrated when carrier proteins bind with and transport specific molecules into or out of the cell and cell organelles. Option (c) type of proteins can be enzymes which are confined to certain domains and option (d) types are non-transmenbrane proteins.

Correct Option:
B
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Question 122 BIO 101 | LAUTECH 100L
A
blue  
B
green  
C
yellow  
D
red.  
Explanation.
Share Answer Resolution of microscope is inversely proportional to wavelength of light used. Out of four options given, blue light has minimum wavelength and hence maximum resolution.

Correct Option:
A
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Question 123 BIO 101 | LAUTECH 100L
A
grana  
B
pyrenoid  
C
stroma  
D
both grana and stroma.  
Explanation.
Share Answer A chloroplast is a vesicle bounded by an envelope of two unit membranes and filled with a fluid matrix called stroma. The lamellae, after separation from the inner membrane, usually take the form of closed, flattened, ovoid sacs, the thylakoids, which lie closely packed in piles, the grana. <br /> The thylakoid membrane contains photosynthetic pigments namely, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids (carotene, xanthophylls) and plastoquinone. The thylakoid membranes also contain coupling factors that bring about ATP synthesis.

Correct Option:
A
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Question 124 BIO 101 | LAUTECH 100L
A
the electron microscope is more powerful than the light microscope as it uses a beam of electrons which has wavelength much longer than that of photons  
B
the resolving power of the electron microscope is much higher than that of the light microscope  
C
the resolving power of the electron microscope is 200 – 350 nm as compared to 0.1 – 0.2 nm for the light microscope  
D
electron beam can pass through thick materials, whereas light microscopy requires thin sections  
Explanation.
Share Answer Microscopes are used for studying cellular structures. They are used to magnify small objects. In electron microscopes, a high energy beam of electrons is focused through electromagnetic lenses. It can magnify very small details with high resolving power. The increased resolution results from the shorter wavelength of the electron beam.

Correct Option:
B
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Question 125 BIO 101 | LAUTECH 100L
A
cilia contain an outer ring of nine doublet microtubules surrounding two singlet microtubules  
B
the organized beating of cilia is controlled by fluxes of Ca2+ across the membrane  
C
cilia are hair-like cellular appendages  
D
microtubules of cilia are composed of tubulin  
Explanation.
Share Answer Cilia are fine hair like vibratile, cytoplasmic processes borne by certain cell types. Their movement either propels the organism or moves the medium past a fixed cell. The cilia are enclosed by a unit membrane which is an extension of the plasma membrane of the cell. Within the membrane, is a fluid matrix having a supporting axial shaft, or axoneme. <br /> The axoneme is composed of eleven microtubules. Two microtubules are single and lie at the centre with a gap in between. They are called central singlets. The remaining nine microtubules are double and lie in a ring around the central microtubules. The two microtubules forming a doublet are named A and B subtubules. <br /> The microtubules single as well as double, are composed of the globular units of the protein tubulin. The arms of A microtubules contain a protein dynein. The latter is ATPase enzyme which catalyzes hydrolysis of ATP to ADP, and transfers the free energy released direct to ciliary work.

Correct Option:
B
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Question 126 BIO 101 | LAUTECH 100L
A
the outer membrane resembles a sieve  
B
the outer membrane is permeable to all kinds of molecules  
C
the enzymes of the electron transfer chain are embedded in the outer membrane  
D
the inner membrane is highly convoluted forming a series of infoldings  
Explanation.
Share Answer The outer membrane of mitochondrion is smooth, freely permeable to most small molecules, contains fewer enzymes and is poor in proteins. It has porin proteins which form channels for the passage of molecules through it. It allows uptake of substrates and release of ATP. The inner membrane is semipermeable and regulates the passage of materials into and out of the mitochondrion. It is rich in enzymes and carrier proteins (permeases). It is usually produced into numerous infolds called cristae (singular crista). It bears – minute regularly spaced lollipop-shaped particles known as oxysomes. The rest of the inner membrane contains the electron carrier molecules of the electron transport chain.

Correct Option:
C
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Question 127 BIO 101 | LAUTECH 100L
A
cellular level  
B
organismic level  
C
atomic level  
D
submicroscopic molecular level.  
Explanation.
Share Answer Molecular assemblies are large organised sets of molecular units that make up parts of organelles. For example one common macromolecular assembly is the microtubule which is important in forming structure in the cell related to maintaining the cell structure or related to cell movement. The cell (plasma) membrane that surrounds many organelles and the cell is a highly organised molecular assembly.

Correct Option:
D
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Question 128 BIO 101 | LAUTECH 100L
A
both chloroplasts and mitochondria have an internal compartment, the thylakoid space bounded by the thylakoid membrane  
B
both chloroplasts and mitochondria contain DNA  
C
the chloroplasts are generally much larger than mitochondria  
D
both chloroplasts and mitochondria contain an inner and an outer membrane.  
Explanation.
Share Answer Both chloroplasts and mitochondria contain DNA and are double membrane bound organelles having an inner membrane and outer membrane. Mitochondria occur in cytoplasm of both plants and animal cells. A mitochondria contains two chambers. The inner membrane forms mitochondrial cristae. Chloroplast is also a double membranous organelle but found only in plants. The membrane bound matrix of chloroplasts is stroma and inside the stroma thylakoids are present which form grana.

Correct Option:
A
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Question 129 BIO 101 | LAUTECH 100L
A
glycolipids  
B
proline  
C
phospholipids  
D
cholesterol.  
Explanation.
Share Answer Chemically a biomembrane consists of lipids (20-70%), proteins (20-70%), carbohydrates (1-5%) and water (20%). The important lipids of the membrane are phospholipids (some hundred types), sterols, (eg. cholesterol), glycolipids, sphingolipid (eg, sphingomyelin, cerebrosides). Protein can be fibrous or globular structural carrier, receptor or enzymatic. The lipid molecules are amphiatic or amphipathic, that is, they possess both polar hydrophilic (water loving) and non-polar hydrophobic (water repelling) ends. <br /> The hydrophilic region is in the form of head while hydrophobic part contains two tails of fatty acids. It results in formation of a lipid bilayer. Most common lipid of the bilayer is phospholipids. Protein molecules also possess both polar and non-polar side chains. Usually their poly hydrophilic linkages are towards the outer side. The non-polar or hydrophobic linkage are either kept folded inside or used to establish connections with hydrophobic parts of the lipids.

Correct Option:
B
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Question 130 BIO 101 | LAUTECH 100L
A
isogamy  
B
homogamy  
C
somatogamy  
D
hologamy.  
Explanation.
Share Answer Isogamy involves the fusion of gametes which are morphologically and physiologically similar. They are called isogametes. In Chlamydomonas, two vegetative cells may fuse to form a zygospore and the phenomenon is called as hologamy. As a result of fusion of two gametes, zygospore is formed.

Correct Option:
D
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